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    淺談中國茶文化
    來源:中國茶文化網    時間:2011/12/21    閱讀:13420次

       一飲茶溯源

      (一)中華茶文化的悠久歷史

      唐代陸羽《茶經》稱“茶之飲,發乎神農“。傳說“神農嘗百草,日遇七十二毒,得茶而解“。中國是發現與利用茶葉最早的國家,至今已有數千年的歷史。茶樹原產于中國的西南部,云南等地至今仍生存著樹齡達千年以上的野生大茶樹。四川、湖北一帶的古代巴蜀地區據歷史的記載是中華茶文化的發祥地。從唐代、宋代至元、明、清時期,茶葉生產區域不斷擴大,茶文化不斷發展,并逐漸傳播至世界各地。茶,這一古老的飲料,為人類的文明與進步作出了積極的貢獻。

      (二)茶的發現與利用

      中國是茶的故鄉。經過漫長的歷史跋涉,現在茶已經在全世界50多個國家中扎下了根,茶葉已經成為風靡世界的三大無酒精飲料之一。

      如以神農時代開始算起,在中國,茶的發現和利用始于原始母系代族社會,距今大約有五六千年的歷史了。

      二豐富多彩的名優茶

      中國產茶歷史悠久,茶類齊全,花色品種之多稱得上千姿百態、豐富多彩,品質各具特色。從歷史貢茶發展至今,全國21個產茶省、市、自治區生產的茶葉,花色品類達千種以上。西湖龍井、碧螺春、祁門紅茶、大紅袍、凍頂烏龍茶等十大名茶,享譽海內外。品名繁多的名優茶,觀其外型千姿百態,看其湯色五顏六色,嘗其香味濃強鮮醇,風味各異。數百幅名優茶圖譜,會使你大開眼界,更會使你產生最好都能品嘗一遍的欲望。

      三民族飲茶習俗

      中國飲茶歷史最早,所以,最懂得飲茶真趣。客來敬茶,以茶代酒,用茶示禮,歷來是我國各民族的飲茶之道。

      “千里不同風,百里不同俗“。我國是一個多民族的國家,共有56個兄弟民族,由于所處地理環境和歷史文化的不同,以及生活風俗的各異,使每個民族的飲茶風俗也各不相同。在生活中,即使是同一民族,在不同地域,飲茶習俗也各有千秋。不過把飲茶看作是健身的飲料、純潔的化身、友誼的橋梁、團結的紐帶,在這一點上又是共同的。

      漢民族的飲茶方式,大致有品茶和喝茶之分。大抵說來,重在意境,以鑒別香氣、滋味,欣賞茶姿、茶湯,觀察茶色、茶形為目的,自娛自樂,謂之品茶。凡品茶者,得以細啜緩咽,注重精神享受。倘在勞動之際,汗流夾背,或炎夏暑熱,以清涼、消暑、解渴為目的,手捧大碗急飲者;或不斷沖泡,連飲帶咽者,謂之喝茶。

      不過,漢族飲茶,雖然方式有別,目的不同,但大多推崇清飲,其方法就是將茶直接用滾開水沖泡,無須在茶湯中加入姜、椒、鹽、糖之類佐料,屬純茶原汁本味飲法,認為清飲能保持茶的“純粹“,體現茶的“本色“。而最有漢族飲茶“純粹“,體現茶的“本色“。而最有漢族飲茶代表性的,則要數品龍井、啜烏龍、吃蓋碗茶、泡九道茶和喝大碗茶了。

      四飲茶健康

      歷代古籍中記述飲茶有利于健康的論述是很多的。從《神農本草》、《神農食經》到李時珍的《本草綱本》都有很多關于茶作藥用的記錄。明代錢椿年《茶譜》說:“人飲真茶,能止渴消食、除痰少睡、利水道、明目益思、除煩去膩,人固不可一日無茶。“這些茶的功效,確實被以后的醫療科學所證實。因為茶葉中含有很多有利于人體健康的化學成份,現代醫學試驗表明,茶葉的保健功能是多方面的。當然,飲茶也還要講究科學,

      (一)茶葉化學成分及其對人體保健的作用

      茶葉的化學成分是由3.5-7%的無機物和93~96.5%的有機物組成。茶葉中的無機礦質元素約有27種,包括磷、鉀、硫、鎂、錳、氟、鋁、鈣、鈉、鐵、銅、鋅、硒等多種。茶葉中的有機化合物主要有蛋白質、脂質、碳水化合物、氨基酸、生物堿、茶多酚、有機酸、色素、香氣成分、維生素、皂苷、甾醇等。茶葉中含有20-30%的葉蛋白,但能溶于茶湯的只有3.5%左右。茶葉中含有15-4%的游離氨基酸,種類達20多種,大多是人體必需的氨基酸。茶葉中含有25-30%的碳水化合物,但能溶于茶湯的只有3-4%。茶葉中含有4-5%的脂質,也是人體必需的。除這些之外茶葉中富含若干功能性成分,它們的含量及對人體保健的作用起著相當大的作用。

      (二)茶的保健功能

      唐代著名醫學家陳藏器在《本草拾遺》中寫道:“諸藥為各病之藥,茶為萬病之藥“,這雖夸張些,但茶的保健作用確實早已被人們所認識。經現代科學的研究表明,已知茶對人體至少有61種保健作用,對20余種疾病有防治效果。歸納古今中外的研究成果,茶對人體的保健功能約有25項。

      (三)茶之健康

      喝什么茶對健康更有利,不能用一句話來作簡單的回答,也就是說,各種茶葉的營養、藥效成分有一定差異,可適合不同身體條件的人們飲用。比如身體比較虛弱的人,喝點紅茶,在茶中添加點糖和奶,既可增加能量又能補充營養。青年人正處發育旺盛期,以喝綠茶為好。婦女經期前后以及更年期,性情煩躁,飲用花茶有疏肝解郁、理氣調經的功效。身體肥胖、希望減肥的人,可以多喝些烏龍茶、沱茶等。常年食牛羊肉較多的人,可以多喝些磚茶、餅茶等經過后發酵的緊壓茶,有助于脂肪食物的消化。經常接觸有毒害物質的工作人員,可以選擇綠茶作為勞動保護飲料。腦力勞動者、軍人、駕駛員、運動員、歌唱家、廣播員、演員等,為了提高腦子的敏捷程度,保持頭腦清醒、精神飽滿,增強思維能力,判斷能力和記憶力,可以飲用高檔綠茶,諸如各種名優綠茶之類。

      如果單從各種茶葉營養成分和藥效成分的含量比較而言,高級綠茶優于其他茶類。如維生素C、B1和B2,磷、鉀、鋅等礦物質,茶多酚等物質,其含量通常都是高級綠茶高于其他茶。因此,從營養保健的角度而言,喝高級綠茶更有利于健康。

      五茶之禮儀

      (一)客來敬茶應注意事項

      客來敬茶是中國人的一種傳統美德。雖然清茶一杯,然而這是一種高尚的禮儀。客來敬茶應注意如下幾點第一,飲茶場所要清潔衛生,最好有幽雅的氛圍;第二,茶具要與茶類適應,清潔衛生;第三,要向客人介紹茶類茶名,必要時讓客人觀賞一下茶的外形;第四,撮茶切忌用手抓,茶水比例要適宜;第五,品飲時宜緩不宜急,并注意適時添水續泡;第六,能借題發揮,介紹一些有關這種茶葉的產地、風貌、品質特點,更能增添不少情趣。


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