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    茶與祭祀文化小考
    來源:中國網    時間:2012/5/14    閱讀:5958次

     

      祭祀是我國古代社會中較婚姻更為經常的一種禮制和生活內容。那么,茶是什么時候開始用來作祭的呢?一般認為,茶是在被用作飲料以后,才派生出一系列的次生文化的。這也即是說,只有在茶葉成為日常生活用品之后,才慢慢被用諸或吸收到我國禮制包括喪禮之中。我國隨葬用的明器,《釋名》稱“送死之器”,主要是一些“助生送死,追思終副”的物品。至于祭禮,如東漢阮瑀在七哀詩中所吟:“嘉肴設不御,旨酒盈觴杯”,都是死者生前享用和最喜歡吃的那些東西。在上引詩句中,可以約略看出,我國大致在東漢時,至少這時的北方,還沒有用茶來作祭禮。
      
      我國以茶為祭,是在以茶待客,大致是兩晉以后才逐漸興起的。從文獻記載來看,如唐代韓愈“……禮賢,方聞置茗;晉臣愛客,才有分茶”,我國以茶待客、以茶相贈,最初是流行于三國和兩晉的江南地區。因此,茶葉作為祭品,不會早于這一時期。至于用茶為祭的正式記載,則直到梁蕭子顯撰寫的《南齊書》中才始見及。該書《武帝本紀》載,永明十一年(493)七月詔:“我靈上慎勿以牲為祭,唯設餅、茶飲、干飯、酒脯而已,天上貴賤,咸同此制。”齊武帝蕭頤,是南朝比較節儉的少數統治者之一。這里他遺囑靈上唯設餅、茶一類為祭,是現存茶葉作祭的最早記載,但不是以茶為祭的開始。在喪事紀念中用茶作祭品,當最初創始于民間,蕭頤則是把民間出現的這種禮俗,吸收到統治階級的喪禮之中,鼓勵和推廣了這種制度。
      
      把茶葉用作喪事的祭品,只是祭禮的一種。我國祭祀活動,還有祭天、祭地、祭祖、祭神、祭仙、祭佛,不可盡言。茶葉之用于這些祭祀的時間,大致也和上說的用于喪事的時間相差不多。如晉《神異記》中有這樣一個故事:講余姚有個叫虞洪的人,一天進山采茶,遇到一個道士,把虞洪引到瀑布山,說:我是丹丘子(傳說中的仙人),聽說你善于煮飲,常常想能分到點嘗嘗。山里有大茶樹,可以相幫采摘,希望他日有剩茶時,請留一點給我。虞洪回家以后,“因立奠祀”,每次派家人進山,也都能得到大茶葉。另《異苑》中也記有這樣一則傳說:剡縣陳務妻,年輕時和兩個兒子寡居。她好飲茶,院子里面有一座古墳,每次飲茶時,都要先在墳前澆點茶奠祭一下。兩個兒子很討厭,說古墳知道什么?白費心思,要把墳挖掉,母親苦苦勸說才止祝一天夜里,得一夢,見一人說:“我埋在這里三百多年了,你兩個兒子屢欲毀墳,蒙你保護,又賜我好茶,我雖已是地下朽骨,但不能忘記稍作酬報。”天亮,在院子中發現有十萬錢,看錢似在地下埋了很久,但穿的繩子是新的。母親把這事告訴兩個兒子后,二人很慚愧,自此祭禱更勤。透過這些故事,不難看出在二晉南北朝時,茶葉也開始廣泛地用于各種祭祀活動了。
      
      不過,上面講的例子,都是發生在南方的事,至于在黃河流域和北方一帶,廣泛用茶為祭品的時期,一般認為是在隋唐統一全國,特別是唐代中期北方飲茶風行之后。這一點,從唐代的貢茶制度中也能多少看出一點。貢茶是專門進奉宮廷御用的茶葉。我國茶葉作為方物,進貢的歷史甚早;但是,專門設立貢茶基地--貢焙,還是唐代中期才出現的事情。唐朝的茶葉,如鄭谷《蜀中》詩句描寫的“蒙頂茶畦千點露,浣花箋紙一溪春”;由于小氣候的關系,蒙頂山上的茶葉,被譽為“天下第一”,每年也入貢。但是,由于蒙頂茶數量少,蜀道難行,所以,唐代的貢焙,還是設在緊挨運河和國道線上的常州宜興和湖州長興相界的顧渚。其所以把貢焙選定在宜興、長興二縣,與這里所出茶葉質量較好有一定關系,但主要的,還如李郢的詩句所吟:“一月五程路四千,到時須及清明宴”;要趕在清明前面貢到。“清明宴”,是清明祭祀結束以后的宴請活動,所以,“須及清明宴”是假,要趕上清明的祭祀是真。由此,我們雖不能分辨北方是宮廷還是民間以茶作祭為先,但至少從上述貢茶制度中可以看出,唐代中期時,北方應用茶來作祭禮,也差不多已與南方同樣重視。
      
      茶葉作為祭品,無論是尊天敬地或拜佛祭祖,比一般以茶為禮,要更虔誠、講究一些。王室用于祭典的,全部是進貢的上好茶葉,就是一般寺廟中用于祭佛的,也都總是想法選留最好的茶葉。如《蠻甌志》記稱:“《覺林院志》崇收茶三等:待客以驚雷莢,自奉以萱草帶,供佛以紫茸香。蓋最上以供佛,而最下以自奉也。”我國南方很多寺廟都種茶,所收茶葉一餉香客,二以供佛,三堪自用,一般都是作如上三用,但更傾心的,還是為敬佛之用。
      
      我國古代用茶作祭,一般有這樣三種形式:在茶碗、茶盞中注以茶水;不煮泡只放以干茶;不放茶,只置茶壺、茶盅作象征。但也有例外者,如明徐獻忠《吳興掌故集》載:“我朝太祖皇帝喜顧渚茶,今定制,歲貢奉三十二斤,清明年(前)二日,縣官親詣采造,進南京奉先殿焚香而已。”在宜興的縣志中,也有類似的記載。這就是說,在明永樂遷都北京以后,宜興、長興除向北京進貢芽茶以外,還要在清明前二日,各貢幾十斤茶葉供奉先殿祭祖焚化;祭茶采用焚燒的特殊形式。
      
      我國許多兄弟民族,也有以茶為祭品的習慣。如云南西雙版納的布朗族,50年代以前,他們雖然受傣族文化影響信仰小乘佛教,但自然崇拜、祖先崇拜等原始宗教的信仰和祭祀活動,仍要超過佛事活動。布朗人的自然崇拜,以崇拜神鬼精靈最為突出,他們認為日月星辰,風雨雷電,山林河路,村寨房屋,生老病死,莊稼畜禽,無不都是由神鬼主宰的。據約略統計,他們平時祭奠的鬼名有80多種。至于農業的祭祀活動,更是頻繁,從燒山開地一直到收獲進倉,都要舉行一系列的祭祀活動。所有上述各種祭祀,一般都只用飯菜、竹筍和茶葉這三種祭品,將它們分成三份,放在芭蕉葉上;只有較大的祭祀活動才殺豬宰牛。再如云南文山壯族支系的布依人,他們敬奉的神靈較少,主要供奉“老人廳”、“龍樹”和“土地廟”。老人廳設在寨中,供奉神農的牌位。土地廟一般都建在村寨邊上,龍樹則在稍遠一些的山坡上。布儂人的祭祀活動,如祭土地,每月初一、十五,由全寨各家輪流到廟中點燈敬茶,祈求土地神保護全寨人畜平安。祭品很簡單,主要是用茶。特別值得一提的是比較獨特的不是祭品的喪俗用茶,居住在云南麗江的納西族,無論男女老少,在死時快斷氣前,都要往死者嘴里放些銀末、茶葉和米粒,他們認為只有這樣,死者才能到“神地”。對這種風俗,一般認為上述三者分別代表錢財、喝的和吃的;即生前有吃有喝又有財,死后也能到一個好的地方。
      
      祭祀活動中的以茶作祭品的情況,可以說是茶文化發展過程中衍生出來的一種帶有封建迷信的副文化。茶是在我國祭祀發展的較遲階段上才加入祭品的,而且它在減輕祭祀糜費和適應大眾需要方面,也有過一定積極意義。但是,它畢竟只能是人類生產力和科學、文化都比較低下的一種歷史社會現象。《尚書》等古籍中提到:祭言察也,察者至也,言人事至于神也。隨著社會發展和人類認識和改造自然能力的提高,社會中的“人事”和人們對“神”的觀念,都在不斷變化。事實也是如此,隨著國家建設的不斷發展,如今我國的祭祀發生了根本性變化,以至上述祭祀活動已變成了歷史的陳跡。存在決定意識。我們不能預言將來祭祀會不會在社會生活中消失,但是可以肯定,即使將來仍然有祭祀或保留有用茶作祭的禮儀,它過去所帶的那些封建迷信成分,必然會隨著人們頭腦中的封建意識的消除而消除。所以,這里把已經和正在消失的茶葉祭祀內容重翻出來,為的是全面敘述茶葉文化曾走過的歷史道路。


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