• 首 頁 《讀者》航空版 關于《讀者》 訂購《讀者》 早期文章 在線投稿 來稿選登 廣告刊登
    論  壇 時代快訊 出版消息 文化動態 健康生活 音  樂 中文教育 讀者心聲
    看 世 界 藝術欣賞 茶  學 飲食文化 關  注 名言警句 幽  默 范子登專欄
    茶與名人
    茶  史
    茶  藝
    茶葉介紹
    茶與養生
    茶業資訊
    茶  器
    茶  畫
    當前位置:首頁茶  學茶  史
    茶與祭祀文化小考
    來源:中國網    時間:2012/5/14    閱讀:5958次

     

      祭祀是我國古代社會中較婚姻更為經常的一種禮制和生活內容。那么,茶是什么時候開始用來作祭的呢?一般認為,茶是在被用作飲料以后,才派生出一系列的次生文化的。這也即是說,只有在茶葉成為日常生活用品之后,才慢慢被用諸或吸收到我國禮制包括喪禮之中。我國隨葬用的明器,《釋名》稱“送死之器”,主要是一些“助生送死,追思終副”的物品。至于祭禮,如東漢阮瑀在七哀詩中所吟:“嘉肴設不御,旨酒盈觴杯”,都是死者生前享用和最喜歡吃的那些東西。在上引詩句中,可以約略看出,我國大致在東漢時,至少這時的北方,還沒有用茶來作祭禮。
      
      我國以茶為祭,是在以茶待客,大致是兩晉以后才逐漸興起的。從文獻記載來看,如唐代韓愈“……禮賢,方聞置茗;晉臣愛客,才有分茶”,我國以茶待客、以茶相贈,最初是流行于三國和兩晉的江南地區。因此,茶葉作為祭品,不會早于這一時期。至于用茶為祭的正式記載,則直到梁蕭子顯撰寫的《南齊書》中才始見及。該書《武帝本紀》載,永明十一年(493)七月詔:“我靈上慎勿以牲為祭,唯設餅、茶飲、干飯、酒脯而已,天上貴賤,咸同此制。”齊武帝蕭頤,是南朝比較節儉的少數統治者之一。這里他遺囑靈上唯設餅、茶一類為祭,是現存茶葉作祭的最早記載,但不是以茶為祭的開始。在喪事紀念中用茶作祭品,當最初創始于民間,蕭頤則是把民間出現的這種禮俗,吸收到統治階級的喪禮之中,鼓勵和推廣了這種制度。
      
      把茶葉用作喪事的祭品,只是祭禮的一種。我國祭祀活動,還有祭天、祭地、祭祖、祭神、祭仙、祭佛,不可盡言。茶葉之用于這些祭祀的時間,大致也和上說的用于喪事的時間相差不多。如晉《神異記》中有這樣一個故事:講余姚有個叫虞洪的人,一天進山采茶,遇到一個道士,把虞洪引到瀑布山,說:我是丹丘子(傳說中的仙人),聽說你善于煮飲,常常想能分到點嘗嘗。山里有大茶樹,可以相幫采摘,希望他日有剩茶時,請留一點給我。虞洪回家以后,“因立奠祀”,每次派家人進山,也都能得到大茶葉。另《異苑》中也記有這樣一則傳說:剡縣陳務妻,年輕時和兩個兒子寡居。她好飲茶,院子里面有一座古墳,每次飲茶時,都要先在墳前澆點茶奠祭一下。兩個兒子很討厭,說古墳知道什么?白費心思,要把墳挖掉,母親苦苦勸說才止祝一天夜里,得一夢,見一人說:“我埋在這里三百多年了,你兩個兒子屢欲毀墳,蒙你保護,又賜我好茶,我雖已是地下朽骨,但不能忘記稍作酬報。”天亮,在院子中發現有十萬錢,看錢似在地下埋了很久,但穿的繩子是新的。母親把這事告訴兩個兒子后,二人很慚愧,自此祭禱更勤。透過這些故事,不難看出在二晉南北朝時,茶葉也開始廣泛地用于各種祭祀活動了。
      
      不過,上面講的例子,都是發生在南方的事,至于在黃河流域和北方一帶,廣泛用茶為祭品的時期,一般認為是在隋唐統一全國,特別是唐代中期北方飲茶風行之后。這一點,從唐代的貢茶制度中也能多少看出一點。貢茶是專門進奉宮廷御用的茶葉。我國茶葉作為方物,進貢的歷史甚早;但是,專門設立貢茶基地--貢焙,還是唐代中期才出現的事情。唐朝的茶葉,如鄭谷《蜀中》詩句描寫的“蒙頂茶畦千點露,浣花箋紙一溪春”;由于小氣候的關系,蒙頂山上的茶葉,被譽為“天下第一”,每年也入貢。但是,由于蒙頂茶數量少,蜀道難行,所以,唐代的貢焙,還是設在緊挨運河和國道線上的常州宜興和湖州長興相界的顧渚。其所以把貢焙選定在宜興、長興二縣,與這里所出茶葉質量較好有一定關系,但主要的,還如李郢的詩句所吟:“一月五程路四千,到時須及清明宴”;要趕在清明前面貢到。“清明宴”,是清明祭祀結束以后的宴請活動,所以,“須及清明宴”是假,要趕上清明的祭祀是真。由此,我們雖不能分辨北方是宮廷還是民間以茶作祭為先,但至少從上述貢茶制度中可以看出,唐代中期時,北方應用茶來作祭禮,也差不多已與南方同樣重視。
      
      茶葉作為祭品,無論是尊天敬地或拜佛祭祖,比一般以茶為禮,要更虔誠、講究一些。王室用于祭典的,全部是進貢的上好茶葉,就是一般寺廟中用于祭佛的,也都總是想法選留最好的茶葉。如《蠻甌志》記稱:“《覺林院志》崇收茶三等:待客以驚雷莢,自奉以萱草帶,供佛以紫茸香。蓋最上以供佛,而最下以自奉也。”我國南方很多寺廟都種茶,所收茶葉一餉香客,二以供佛,三堪自用,一般都是作如上三用,但更傾心的,還是為敬佛之用。
      
      我國古代用茶作祭,一般有這樣三種形式:在茶碗、茶盞中注以茶水;不煮泡只放以干茶;不放茶,只置茶壺、茶盅作象征。但也有例外者,如明徐獻忠《吳興掌故集》載:“我朝太祖皇帝喜顧渚茶,今定制,歲貢奉三十二斤,清明年(前)二日,縣官親詣采造,進南京奉先殿焚香而已。”在宜興的縣志中,也有類似的記載。這就是說,在明永樂遷都北京以后,宜興、長興除向北京進貢芽茶以外,還要在清明前二日,各貢幾十斤茶葉供奉先殿祭祖焚化;祭茶采用焚燒的特殊形式。
      
      我國許多兄弟民族,也有以茶為祭品的習慣。如云南西雙版納的布朗族,50年代以前,他們雖然受傣族文化影響信仰小乘佛教,但自然崇拜、祖先崇拜等原始宗教的信仰和祭祀活動,仍要超過佛事活動。布朗人的自然崇拜,以崇拜神鬼精靈最為突出,他們認為日月星辰,風雨雷電,山林河路,村寨房屋,生老病死,莊稼畜禽,無不都是由神鬼主宰的。據約略統計,他們平時祭奠的鬼名有80多種。至于農業的祭祀活動,更是頻繁,從燒山開地一直到收獲進倉,都要舉行一系列的祭祀活動。所有上述各種祭祀,一般都只用飯菜、竹筍和茶葉這三種祭品,將它們分成三份,放在芭蕉葉上;只有較大的祭祀活動才殺豬宰牛。再如云南文山壯族支系的布依人,他們敬奉的神靈較少,主要供奉“老人廳”、“龍樹”和“土地廟”。老人廳設在寨中,供奉神農的牌位。土地廟一般都建在村寨邊上,龍樹則在稍遠一些的山坡上。布儂人的祭祀活動,如祭土地,每月初一、十五,由全寨各家輪流到廟中點燈敬茶,祈求土地神保護全寨人畜平安。祭品很簡單,主要是用茶。特別值得一提的是比較獨特的不是祭品的喪俗用茶,居住在云南麗江的納西族,無論男女老少,在死時快斷氣前,都要往死者嘴里放些銀末、茶葉和米粒,他們認為只有這樣,死者才能到“神地”。對這種風俗,一般認為上述三者分別代表錢財、喝的和吃的;即生前有吃有喝又有財,死后也能到一個好的地方。
      
      祭祀活動中的以茶作祭品的情況,可以說是茶文化發展過程中衍生出來的一種帶有封建迷信的副文化。茶是在我國祭祀發展的較遲階段上才加入祭品的,而且它在減輕祭祀糜費和適應大眾需要方面,也有過一定積極意義。但是,它畢竟只能是人類生產力和科學、文化都比較低下的一種歷史社會現象。《尚書》等古籍中提到:祭言察也,察者至也,言人事至于神也。隨著社會發展和人類認識和改造自然能力的提高,社會中的“人事”和人們對“神”的觀念,都在不斷變化。事實也是如此,隨著國家建設的不斷發展,如今我國的祭祀發生了根本性變化,以至上述祭祀活動已變成了歷史的陳跡。存在決定意識。我們不能預言將來祭祀會不會在社會生活中消失,但是可以肯定,即使將來仍然有祭祀或保留有用茶作祭的禮儀,它過去所帶的那些封建迷信成分,必然會隨著人們頭腦中的封建意識的消除而消除。所以,這里把已經和正在消失的茶葉祭祀內容重翻出來,為的是全面敘述茶葉文化曾走過的歷史道路。


    〖更多評論〗
    (s46m01mr0i@hotmail.com):
        predisone  on  line      car  insurance  qoute      cover  insurance  liability      degrees  online  it 
    2014/11/17 17:50:53

    (3b0h86wg@mail.com):
        free  insurance  car  quotes      viagra      michigan  auto  insurance      car  insureance      cheapcar  insurance 
    2014/10/28 11:47:14

    (blwjcupv@yahoo.com):
        drive  who      auto  insurance      provide  competent      insurance  car 
    2014/7/14 7:50:20

    (f6oo05u2@yahoo.com):
        ensure  getting      cheap  auto  insurance      buy  cialas  on  line      bad  records      swinton  car 
    2014/7/11 23:16:45

    (8wwc228fioi@gmail.com):
        pfizer  viagra      small  section      car  insurance      cup      car  insurance  quotes 
    2014/7/8 13:29:56

    昵稱: 郵箱: 驗證:
    主題:
    內容:
     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    關于我們 | 聯系我們 | 新方舟簡介 | 友情鏈接 | 收藏本站 | 設為首頁
    《中華人民共和國電信與信息服務業務經營許可證》編號:粵ICP備05140390號
    彩客网 www.33598y.com | www.vns71999.com | www.5441z.com | www.lpj789.com | www.am2220.com | www.3657a.com | www.135580.com | www.456qqq.com | 30179955.com | www.308878.com | 9y88.vip | www.656133.com | 550111c.com | www.pujing75.com | 3131aa.cc | www.837887.com | www.29886k.com | 29918l.com | www.77852.com | 6868003.cc | www.m32939.com | 7555v.com | www.8667n.com | www.58777p.com | 41178982.com | www.80969s.com | 111pj8.cc | www.5856886.com | 589669.com | www.585116.com | www.jing6777.com | vv879101.com | www.yjxxelxx.com | www.bm1102.vip | www.110832.com | www.4996jm.com | blr68.com | www.can87.com | www.pj5715.com | www.577690.com | www.938l.cc | 3807hh.com | www.909644.com | www.88zz.cc | 44005002.com | www.hd8673.com | 4635511.com | www.77djcp.com | www.sscb3.com | u4389.com | www.11774.cc | www.238288.com | 83138j.com | www.52072z.com | www.32666s.com | 75991b.com | www.570337.com | 454664.com | lswjs568.com | www.99638n.com | www.yinhe9507d.com | 2222k20.com | www.5856887.com | www.58777i.com | 8988HH.com | www.741770.com | www.360049.com | bwin8g.com | www.00ttz.com | www.912006.com | 3435y.com | www.c2953.com | www.58665b.com | dwj15.com | www.196556.com | www.9988gvb.com | www.365168.cc | 3136dd.com | www.36787g.com | www.79890m.com | 4461e.com | www.514077.com | www.781516.com | 83377f.com | www.003895.com | www.99552mm.com | 1294e.com | 7736o.com | www.982090.com | www.930608.com | 633248.com | x33y.vip | www.603154.com | www.mgm868002.com | www.un5533.com | 256777c.com | www.542911.com | www.blr4444.com | www.amxhtd8.com | 4590016.com | www.258120.com | www.56011b.com | www.28824s.com | g77304.com | 29918qq.com | www.33997.com | www.yh8878n.com | www.aobo8877.com | bb8159.cc | 44dd8331.com | www.8618aa.com | www.lxyl360.com | www.81866j.com | feicai0991.com | www.en06.com | www.6678699.com | www.854569.com | www.yh8880.cc | 3405c.com | 5002aaa.com | www.88266p.com | www.518175.com | www.389988.com | hjcp188.com | 80850o.com | www.444801.com | www.3846b.com | www.333133g.com | 3778pp.com | 8881207.com | www.cly6.com | www.48330v.com | www.774567.com | www.143800.com | 66093366.com | 1669c.com | www.ya066.com | www.38775xx.com | www.65175.com | hbpc3258.com | 00778u.com | www.187397.com | www.6364w.com | www.522665.com | www.hyl8.com | www.38200k.com | hgvipvip3.com | 52599f.com | www.2350l.com | www.52062l.com | www.33707d.com | www.amh008.com | www.6033s.com | 13222i.com | 0434344.com | 2506h.com | www.961205.com | www.9646c.com | www.70099.com | www.hg8069.com | www.7720a.com | 3656991.com | 878365.com | www.zcwf4.com | www.4102e.com | www.0057f.com | www.mapai02.com | 7935y.com | 4303go.com | 5004e.com | www.859509.com | www.12455z.com | www.79095h.com | www.684000.com | www.537msc.com | www.199228.com | 3078g.com | sjg001.com | 670916.com | 78115588.com | 1435.tv | www.809571.com | www.2875m.com | www.1432.com | www.707772.com | www.369405.com | www.751cp4.com | www.900988.com | www.88837g.com | www.7435j.com | kbf3525.com | y73888.com | dzc13.com | 01234ttt.com | 9411qqq.com | 51200tt.com | www.278207.com | www.0ttz.com | www.890413.com | www.ya638.com | www.9356t.com | www.50026f.com | www.55766.com | www.570041.com | www.3116q.com | www.7225l.com | www.104665.com | www.4196u.com | www.178659.com | www.35252r.com | x48n.com | bbs500.com | 87965ii.com | 7335o.com | xgsaimahui.com | 11772007.com | 36408866.com | 4182000.com | bet365visa.com | bb32355.com | vipvip4444.com | 7742ww.com | gfc1688.com | 0612g.com | 7605s.com | p2649.com | 49249208.com | 3421t.com | 8hga.com | 13558.com | yt8bet.com | 2005.com | 459072.com | www.xhtd3344.com | www.09569r.com | www.amdc55.com | www.hg920.com | www.70337.com | www.dr1199.com | www.5966uuu.com | www.796813.com | www.4212q.com | www.858571.com | www.45598h.com | www.86339y.com | www.081234.com | www.95333w.com | www.007hy.cc | www.496918.com | 6245p.com | xinpj1600.com | 6668449.com | 4340t.com | 228888z.com | 3078h.com | 3822o.com | www.355325.com | www.22554100.com | www.yf370.com | www.73990u.com | www.4102o.com | www.71233hh.com | www.hw4444.com | www.713799.com | www.292199.com | 7874.tt | 114la.com | 55113356.com | 22293232.com | www.00057.com | www.85857k.com | www.p063801.com | www.xinhuangguan.com | www.fo03.com | 7196m.com | 6175h.com | so555.cc | 1770g.com | www.me6622.com | sxpj62579.com | 0166f.com | www.7435q.com | www.vns1033.com | www.06387788.com | www.33112l.com | www.393477.com | yy5443.com | 0500.com | www.18735528058.com | www.585555.com | www.4694u.com | www.954321x.com | www.607335.com | g3405.com | 8547cc.com | 3178kk.com | www.a88008.com | www.ss55826.com | www.707wb.com | www.542998.com | bwin8y.com | www.81233h.com | www.607356.com | 99909p.com | 8522rrrr.com | www.55268vv.com | www.848777t.com | www.9422d.com | www.603294.com | 2077bb.com | 0025i.com | www.8577k.cc | www.8905f.com | www.922873.com | mgm.tt | 3788f.com | www.ag4898.com | www.ggx.99233x.com | www.66332h.com | www.376369.com | mayait.cn | www.156250.com | www.20199rr.com | www.68cc2.com | www.26299o.com | hjdc853.com | nyty02.com | www.zte333.com | www.50080m.com | 3434rrr.com | 8790vns11.com | www.284444.me | www.hg068008.com | www.a98478.com | www.139620.com | 4255ii.com | www.pj88111.com | www.30350o.com | www.573477.com | 99567e.com | 6556n.com | www.1106488.com | www.75353.cc | hc9096.com | 7334z.com | www.jz95566.com | www.160wt.com | 709651.com | nyty02.com | www.38345v.com | www.hf5889.com | qq365b.com | www.vns8891.com | www.79095t.com | www.444601.com | hbs48.com | www.b5233.com | www.614377.com | 66093399.com | e86811.com | www.hg8052.com | www.12455p.com | ab5.com | www.60656.com | www.40288p.com | www.342177.com | ee4119.com | www.zr7377.com | www.181442.com | 4123001.com | 71088.com | www.04567s.com | www.593411.com | 888991188.com | www.xpj1535.com | www.80075l.com | feicai0871.com | www.pj8819.com | www.44118l.com | www.33112a.com | 45637b.com | www.vns3938.com | www.984jc.com | 11683388.com | www.653pj.com | www.89980.cc | 99909v.com | www.999133.com | www.9205e.com | 33143.cc | www.hg8373.com | www.8039s.com | 80892a.com | www.219js.com | www.022sh.cc | 8538m.com | www.hwx688.com | www.807735.com | 33112007.com | www.86999c.com | www.314877.com | 7141ii.com | www.js68111.com | 36088.com | 58802r.com | www.qiji111.com | 76543g.com | www.333133z.com | www.50788n.com | shen5588.com | www.87665w.com | www.451117.com | 3245d.com | www.4546500.com | 4880a.com | www.hg226.cm | www.68993267.com | 1777ca.com | www.78188d.com | www.755903.com | 0808bc.com | www.9895h.com | 019222222.com | www.88807g.com | www.3933n.cc | 5564.com | www.3066zz.com | 25295bb.com | www.pjbet3388.com | www.32123w.com | 4488fff.com | www.p32939.com | 4636644.com | www.8344567.com | www.fcff6.com | 91019e.com | www.60886e.com | 1117.com | www.ns1122.com | www.68568o.com | www.8494s.com | www.31744.com | tt6826.com | www.sha2244.com | 1331ll.com | www.909868.com | www.le33.cc | www.518hwx.com | www.2408c.com | 7742nn.com | www.hg929.com | 029.com | www.hg8kk.com | 0332o.com | www.89880033.com | www.356686.com | www.404ks.com | www.66fft.com | am5858.cc | www.db486.com | 9646l.com | www.8889yh.com | xxxx0122.com | www.288988c.com | 3467u.cc | www.cfcp777.com | 875856b.com | www.345007.com | 1213iii.com | www.774167.com | www.xinyc1.com | www.xpj88004.com | www.444165.com | www.benz4455s.com | www.744418.com | www.2882389.com | www.3416o.com | 2268jc.com | www.5522f.cc | 3644v.com | www.qmkl1.com | www.775730.com | www.720992.com | www.859505.com | www.38200n.com | www.703602.com | www.88yh765.com | www.602913.com | www.56520r.com | www.848566.com | www.6535.com | www.339968.com | www.833373.com | www.52072q.com | www.82508b.com | p5903.com | www.9679003.com | 8901z.com | www.55526g.com | 22117.com | www.89677u.com | 2jsddd.com | www.7240p.com | 11tt8332.com | www.9928ff.com | 4546vip6.com | www.560103.com | www.88850z.com | x9983.com | www.jinbocp.com | 5456p.com | www.xpj66123.com | 88112007.com | www.89wcp.com | www.vns996.cc | www.118109.com | www.01304.com | 9737qq.me | www.t32031.com | 8037vvv.com | www.87171.cc | www.6535.com | 8881779.com | www.http://www.410488.com/ | qpby456.com | www.792082.com | 3522c.vip | www.cc6769.com | www.32666w.com | 00995002.com | www.32688.cc | 7720t.com | www.hczx4.com | www.330099p.com | qp168.shsxiwl.cn | www.k7764.com | tt6820.com | www.8424.com | www.h0040.com | 3121tt.com | www.n2894.com | bopaihang.com | www.cai004.vip | www.hg285.com | am51335.net | www.491407.com | j47479.com | www.329209.com | www.2492.cc | 87965cc.com | www.26878z.com | www.benz4422s.com | df6331.com | www.588870.com | 2506s.com | www.338063.com | www.hf9011.com | z21148.com | www.1333ac.com | www.hg1322.com | 36400011.com | www.86267w.com | www.4107f.com | 500000531.com | www.55676e.com | 2613e.com | www.081506.com | www.msc44.com | 4116x.com | www.925507.com | www.03365g.com | 8159g.cc | www.855271.com | www.07179.com | 66287h.com | www.755903.com | www.55526b.com | bodog57.com | www.602475.com | www.005700.com | drcp666.com | www.206991.com | www.695014.com | 2013.com | 3245f.com | www.222999qipai.com | www.653504.com | 777hg.com | www.86267s.com | www.701707.com | 2146o.com | www.4ttz.com | www.5966fff.com | www.50788g.com | www.kk8996.com | 4289n.com | www.703035.com | www.50999o.com | p2554.com | ctxcp68.com | www.00765.com | www.995n.net | 11zz8331.com | www.3668m.com | www.44488807.com | 28839l.com | www.36166o.com | www.eee2848.com | 44077p.com | 2329.com | www.43818l.com | www.3l55.com | 3807t.com | www.062166.com | www.52062o.com | www.87680i.com | 4508kk.com | www.568001.com | www.377666z.com | www.vns7898.com | 2757g.com | www.895010.com | www.57800y.com | www.9844ii.com | 7726nnn.com | www.943077.com | www.yy1234.com | www.88315888.com | 7720d.net | www.711893.com | www.j36.cc | www.zzzz0263.com | 7599dd.com | www.167090.com | www.48330h.com | www.jing6444.com | 00048e.com | 3344blg.com | www.26001.com | www.c32.net | www.8aobo.com | ny204.com | www.490780.com | www.9996uu.com | www.hg8561.com | yulecheng888.com | 22883z.com | www.5522s.cc | www.55060e.com | www.vip22252.com | 4488j.com | 5443yy.com | www.2632a.com | www.0032737.com | www.3046k.com | 54140088.com | 76886c.com | www.tj92.com | www.69567q.com | www.43012l.com | 3245g.com | 5554136.com | www.338017.com | www.1429.net | www.799666v.com | www.hg4498.com | 3421c.com | 500000791.com | www.gen00.com | www.88325l.com | www.d8678.com | mm2649.com | 983888e.com | www.031059.com | www.41518s.com | www.bwinyz12.com | www.bb7677.com | 2555.com | vv879404.com | 500000953.com | www.c9223.com | www.97828j.vip | www.8511msc.com | www.8124s.com | 86811f.com | 131zz.net | www.030953.com | www.7782e.com | www.0622qqq.com | www.esb116.net | www.6491a.com | 998d.cc | 97297g.com | xianboba.com | www.cf9904.com | www.81608u.com | www.30305.com | www.hg0799.com | 99111ww.com | 22ff940.com | mm90856.com | www.591031.com | www.50054n.com | www.79095l.com | www.www-48345.com | www.hg3598.com | 8381p.com | 041122r.com | yh888n.com | www.586974.com | www.21202b.com | www.e848.com | www.811202.com | www.blrggb01.com | www.qian00.com | wns1.net | ahg0088.com | 5003ww.com | www.500108.com | www.2934i.com | www.719880.com | www.huangma22.com | www.1006hg.com | www.0805u.com | www.e50336.com | 2767e.com | 40033dd.com | bwin8l.com | 88535v.com | 9964b.com | www.66ffi.com | www.7239r.com | www.7920k.com | www.3116g.com | www.d9478.com | www.90646.com | www.3311sb.com | www.yun900.com | mf705.com | 3fll8.com | 3522r.cc | 00778i.com | 61789p.com | 3049w.com | 89892bb.com | www.50989e.com | www.401273.com | www.901770.com | www.3126s.com | www.99638m.com | www.1232222.net | www.8905a.com | www.v01888.com | www.5099bb.com | www.751cp11.com | www.3653517.com | www.hg8487.com | www.xpj04666.com | www.09569e.com | www.38200o.com | www.hg08678.com | 5446kk.com | qq2649.com | 883399p.com | 8905i.com | 4323t.com | 2078d.com | sbobet.com | t888c.com | k77304.com | 8547q.com | youle296.com | 33318u.com | 1031878.com | v8738.com | 80368b.com | 11105.com | 492uu.com | 80850ii.com | 30178844.com | 7744www.com | zhcp97.com | 5001w.com | 4630077.com | www.81866w.com | www.5888xpj.com | www.v0050.com | www.608333.com | www.7830z.com | www.88837l.com | www.9999304.com | www.88993h.com | www.jh1188.com | www.445466.com | www.msc44.com | www.618961.com | www.6661ylg.com | www.bwin930.co | www.pjgw11.com | www.3421d.com | www.993957.com | www.4323r.com | www.26163h.com | www.uucp300.com | www.808910.com | www.339132.com | abet384.com | 723012.com | 88xpj377.com | 8fll8.com | 1104006.com | 85698x.com | ylg1188.cc | www.35000.cc | www.vvv2205.com | www.4901a.com | www.c25aaa.com | www.068526.com | www.pj9060.com | www.c387387.com | www.2875f.com | www.701547.com | www.77803v.com | 4809b.com | 4441779.com | 6654888.com | 159666p.com | 4052w.com | www.87680t.com | www.048888.com | www.df5805.com | www.33678aa.com | www.2418a.com | www.1035k.com | www.550342.com | 9339999j.com | 585886.com | 7003r.com | ss56988.com | www.xpj3358.com | www.600kk.com | www.19019u.com | www.g94600.com | www.15355h.com | www.652862.com | www.090040.com | 66667375.com | shen3377.com | 3222i.cc | www.n22365.com | www.cp77dd.com | www.653968.com | www.909938.com | www.891085.com | 36554.com | 1222p.com | 3522600.com | www.883234.com | www.58767.com | www.00773t.com | www.bet365yazhou.com | www.cf9900.com | 36554.com | 9030a.com | 8901u.com | www.3459s.com | www.hf3138.com | www.cc4625.com | www.3478v.cc | www.66376e.com | 88993b.com | 44jj8332.com | www.9068xx.com | www.a948a.com | www.4625.com | www.c299.com | 168cp-r.com | 6654888.com | 5855jj.com | www.66335.com | www.97994f.com | www.055e.cc | 9958944.com | 30174433.com | 8742o.com | www.49788.com | www.js89s.vip | www.tlcp2.com | lll8827.com | 4025e.com | www.6491x.com | www.kxjfg.com | www.6889783.com | www.595477.com | mf704.com | 3121ee.com | www.hggj2288.com | www.1754b.com | www.qml1.com | y9242com | ry064.com | www.js2021.com | www.4058xx.com | www.7782e.com | 3222.com | 11xx8332.com | www.83335k.com | www.7893w38.com | www.66yfa.com | 23800s.com | 3522n.cc | www.288msc.com | www.4996nc.com | www.088wy.com | 7141ee.com | 00773l.com | www.kj151.com | www.9971004.com | www.luck808.com | 23800d.com | www.hg08678.com | www.klcp88.com | www.22503.cc | 5446rr.com | 84497788.com | www.779333.com | www.4988b.cc | www.34788a.com | 78808k.com | www.09569j.com | www.490807.com | www.544949.com | 068089.com | www.yh8333.com | www.35252f.com | www.806726.com | 08159t.com | www.555xhtd.com | www.9570117.com | www.810609.com | 61324499.com | www.36536509.com | www.79095u.com | www.548912.com | ahg0088.com | www.0860v.com | www.4102u.com | www.180435.com | 4955y.com | www.sss998.com | www.0601a.com | 7686p.com | 775948.com | www.6a444.com | www.750966.com | 78114422.com | www.xinhao1122.com | www.s3410.com | www.345597.com | 4541b.com | www.w69096.com | www.33112b.com | v77033.com | js75f.com | www.4058k.com | www.550264.com | eee4255.com | www.789270.com | www.60123j.com | jidu3.com | www.xl1818.com | www.178441.com | www.67258a.com | 2127e.com | www.tc8801.com | www.912486.com | 3950p.com | www.hg7942.com | www.8816t.com | 2jsnnn.com | www.h0040.com | www.91junzi.com | tt6825.com | www.lb77.com | www.093728.com | 33886556.com | xx888i.com | www.w84c.com | 52599m.com | 99995156.com | www.w84e.com | 30176699.com | 11555002.com | www.6057777.com | jxf964.com | 3659.com | www.0033sun.com | 1449b.com | www.wn2068.com | www.l98478.com | 2805v.com | www.20909l.com | www.800938.com | 1389oo.com | www.pj038888.com | www.00840z.com | 09200444.com | www.792777.com | www.910336.com | 22jj8331.com | www.80969z.com | www.055890.com | 8827mm.com | www.087j.com | 1168d.com | www.2888.so | www.15236.cc | 51133zzz.com | www.c44xx.com | www.278203.com | 3258f.com | www.bet779.com | js88830.com | www.9679u.com | www.3479s.com | eee4255.com | www.644886.com | www.60007v.com | 44449193.com | www.954321e.com | 582466.com | www.dz8789.com | www.552703.com | 7989r.com | www.7240r.com | 81005.com | www.5555566666.com | www.643477.com | 2381tt.com | www.7737bb.com | 3616b.com | www.179999.com | www.535051.com | 8901x.com | www.yh70123.com | 5429j.com | www.35252o.com | 9964p.com | www.sb8889.com | www.2875w.com | 3651462.com | www.99552ss.com | 33432o.com | www.jty649.com | www.314377.com | www.058hx.com | www.50026p.com | aobo74.com | www.88325m.com | wfcp999888.com | www.hg3882.com | www.101062.com | www.9374s.com | www.3552u.com | 55331ss.com | www.7249f.com | 4270nn.com | www.4963aa.com | 3078p.com | www.2737006.com | www.342918.com | www.hg250.com | www.1111y.cc | bet28t.com | www.fg9903.com | j333.cc | www.99552ss.com | 55545q.com | www.89599g.com | 5757394.com |