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    茶與名人
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    茶業資訊
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    當前位置:首頁茶  學茶  史
    中國的茶祭風俗
    來源:中國網    時間:2012/8/12    閱讀:5851次

     

      在我國五彩繽紛的民間習俗中,"茶"與喪祭的關系也是十分密切的。"無茶不在喪"的觀念,在中華祭祀禮儀中根深蒂固。
      
      祭祀用茶早在南北朝時梁朝蕭子顯撰寫的《南齊書》中就有記載:齊武帝蕭頤永明十一年在遺詔中稱:"我靈上慎勿以牲為祭,唯設餅果、茶飲、干飯、酒脯而已。"
      
      以茶為祭,可祭天、地、神、佛,也可祭鬼魂,這就與喪葬習俗發生了密切的聯系。上到皇宮貴族,下至庶民百姓,在祭祀中都離不開清香芬芳的茶葉。茶葉不是達官貴人才能獨享,用茶葉祭掃也不是皇室的專利。無論是漢族,還是少數民族,都在較大程度上保留著以茶祭祀祖宗神靈,用茶陪喪的古老風俗。
      
      用茶作祭,一般有三種方式:以茶水為祭,放干茶為祭,只將茶壺、茶盅象征茶葉為祭。
      
      在我國清代,宮廷祭祀祖陵時必用茶葉。據載同治十年(1871年)冬至大祭時即有"松羅茶葉十三兩"記載。在光緒五年(1879年)歲暮大祭的祭品中也有"松羅茶葉二斤"的記述。而在我國民間則歷來流傳以"三茶六酒"(三杯茶、六杯酒)和"清茶四果"作為喪葬中祭品的習俗。如在我國廣東、江西一帶,清明祭祖掃墓時,就有將一包茶葉與其它祭品一起擺放于墳前,或在墳前斟上三杯茶水,祭祀先人的習俗。茶葉還作為隨葬品。從長沙馬王堆西漢古墓的發掘中已經知道,我國早在2100多年前已將茶葉作為隨葬物品。因古人認為茶葉有"潔凈、干燥"作用,茶葉隨葬有利于墓穴吸收異味、有利于遺體保存。
      
      歷古以來,我國都有在死者手中放置一包茶葉的習俗。像安徽壽縣地區,人們認為人死后必經"孟婆亭"飲"迷魂湯",故成殮時,須用茶葉一包,并拌以土灰置于死者手中,這樣死者的靈魂過孟婆亭時即可以不飲迷魂湯了。而浙江地區為讓死者不飲迷魂湯(又稱"孟婆湯"),則于死者臨終前除日銜銀錠外,要先用甘露葉作成一菱形狀的附葬品(模擬"水紅菱"),再在死者手中置茶葉一包。認為死者有此兩物,死后如口渴,有甘露、紅菱,即可不飲迷魂湯。原來在封建迷信中,人死后要被陰間鬼役驅至"孟婆亭"灌飲迷魂湯,目的是為了讓死者忘卻人間舊事,甚而要將死者導人迷津備受欺凌或服苦役,而飲茶后則可以讓"死者清醒",保持理智而不受鬼役蒙騙。故茶葉成為重要的隨葬品。
      
      茶在我國的喪葬習俗中,還成為重要的"信物"。在我國湖南地區,舊時盛行棺木葬時,死者的枕頭要用茶葉作為填充料,稱為"茶葉枕頭"。茶葉枕頭的枕套用白布制作,呈三角形狀,內部用茶葉灌滿填充(大多用粗茶葉)。死者枕茶葉枕頭的寓意,一是死者至陰曹地府要喝茶時,可隨時"取出泡茶";一是茶葉放置棺木內,可消除異味。在我國江蘇的有些地區,則在死者人殮時,先在棺材底撒上一層茶葉、米粒。至出殯蓋棺時再撒上一層茶葉、米粒,其用意主要是起干燥、除味作用,有利于遺體的保存。
      
      喪葬時用茶葉,大多是為死者而備,但我國福建福安地區卻有為活人而備茶葉,懸掛"龍籽袋"的習俗。舊時福安地區,凡家中有人亡故,都得清風水先生看風水,選擇"寶地"后再挖穴埋葬。在棺木入穴前,由風水先生在地穴里鋪上地毯,口中則念念有詞。這時香火繞繚,鞭炮聲起,風水先生就將一把把茶葉、豆子、谷子、芝麻及竹釘、錢幣等撒在穴中的地毯上,再由亡者家屬將撒在地毯上的東西收集起來,用布袋裝好,封好口,懸掛在家中樓梁式木倉內長久保存,名為"龍籽袋"。龍籽袋據說象征死者留給家屬的"財富"。其寓意是,茶葉歷來是吉祥之物,能"驅妖除魔",并保佑死者的子孫"消災祛病"、"人丁興旺",豆和谷子等則象征后代"五谷豐登"、"六畜興旺";錢幣等則示后代子孫享有"金銀錢物"、"財源茂盛"、"吃穿不愁"。


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